CategoryTechnology

What is the Best VPN for Thailand?

RitaVPN is the best choice of VPN in Thailand because RitaVPN protects businesses and individuals from Thailand’s new cyber laws, which gives the Government the power to search, duplicate information on computers and also confiscate computers without a warrant from the court. Hence, RitaVPN gives you 100% privacy protection from the Government’s prying eyes.

RitaVPN not only protects your privacy from prying eyes but also allows you to access websites either blocked by the Government or are geo-restricted. 

In the case of Netflix’s limited content, with RitaVPN, you can access Netflix US and stream unlimited content. Asides Netflix, you can also access other restricted streaming services and major news sites like Yahoo!, CNN, BBC, Aljazeera, etc. RITAVPN can help people unblock websites for free.

Why do you need a VPN in Thailand?

Thailand is a country known for its high degree of internet censorship, online privacy rights violation, and high cybercrime rate.

Thailand is one of the countries with the highest number of websites shut down by the Government. Presently, it only got worse with the new laws giving full backup to Government’s internet censorship and privacy rights violation without the need for a search warrant.
Six reasons why you should use RitaVPN in Thailand
1. Internet Freedom

There are several reported cases of arrests by the Government for posting ‘inciting’ and ‘anti-government’ contents on social media networks. Government censoring and monitoring activities force high levels of restrictions on individuals and private organizations.

Using a VPN service in Thailand is the only means of enjoying Internet freedom. RitaVPN gives you 100% privacy protection with its enhanced privacy and security features like its military-grade encryption, intelligent killer switch, numerous servers spread across the countries of the world, and above all, its ‘no log’ policy.

When you use RitaVPN, you have guaranteed protection from IP leak, online tracking, and digital footprint, etc.
2. Access Blocked Contents and websites

Blocked websites and web contents in Thailand include Pornography, political websites, and blogs, which are sympathetic to Patani United Liberation Organization (PULO)’s cause, and foreign news sites like Aljazeera, BBC, CNN, Yahoo News, China news, etc.

Using RitaVPN, you can access all blocked websites and contents. RitaVPN disguises your IP address and location to reflect a location outside of Thailand, with a new IP address that constantly changes to avoid tracking.
3. Stream contents from Geo-restricted sites

Many streaming services like Netflix US, Hulu BBC iPlayer, ESPN, NBC, etc. restrict their services within their country of operation

Netflix Thailand offers users limited access to less than 200 television series and about half of a thousand movies compared with the US version, which has more than a thousand TV series and about five thousand movies.

To access such mouth-watering contents from geo-restricted sites, all you need do is subscribe to any of RitaVPN’s plans, select ‘USA’ as your location, ‘Connect’ and enjoy unlimited content.
4. Bypass Government surveillance and protection from Cybercrime attacks

Thailand’s Government has sophisticated tools for intercepting and reading data sent over the internet. The Government can also intercept and listen to conversations from ‘VoIP.’

Also, Internet service providers (ISP) in Thailand have received orders from the Government to keep users’ log for not less than 90 days.

When Connecting to the internet via RitaVPN, your data is channeled through RitaVPN’s secure, encrypted tunnel using the highest military-grade encryption protocol. Hence, there is no way your data can be intercepted and decoded either by government agencies or hackers.
5. Torrenting

RitaVPN has dedicated torrenting servers that make torrenting fast, at 80% of standard internet upload and download speed.

Users can enjoy high-speed torrenting while staying safe and anonymous online.
6. Gambling

Casino lovers, it is sad news that Thailand’s Government places a total ban on all foreign gambling sites.

Using RitaVPN, you can access foreign gambling sites and enjoy spinning the wheel or dealing with the cards without being restricted to boring online wagers.
How does RitaVPN work?

RitaVPN has the following privacy and security features to ensure your guaranteed protection online.

The kill switch feature: the kill switch prevents data leakage by disconnecting access to the internet if your VPN goes off.

Military-grade encryption protocol: RitaVPN uses the 256-bit encryption protocol to channel and encrypt your data through its secure encryption tunnel, ensuring your data is 100% protected from interception and interference.

High-quality servers spread across the world: you can connect to these servers and access blocked websites and geo-restricted contents while also enjoying privacy protection by lP and location masking.

‘No log’ policy: RitaVPN is true to its no-log policy. RitaVPN does not keep users log details on their servers. Even when the authorities come knocking, there would be no data to handover.
Why you should choose RitaVPN

Privacy: RitaVPN is based in HongKong, a country with favorable privacy protection laws. When you subscribe to RitaVPN, your payment details are securely protected from third-party access. Also, you can use the anonymous payment means like cryptocurrencies.

Connection speed: high connectivity speed makes RitaVPN stand out amongst other VPN providers.

Intelligent kill switch technology to prevent data leakage

Unlimited Bandwidth connection: subscribing to RitaVPN gives you access to unlimited bandwidth connection.

A simple interface and easy to use navigation: RitaVPN has a simple user-interface and easy-to-use navigation features that make it a favorite amongst first-time users and expert VPN users.

Multiple device connections: connect and enjoy VPN services on up to four devices with a single internet connection.
RitaVPN pricing

RitaVPN Plans

    The Monthly plan of $10.99 per month.
    6-Months plan for $49.99 per six months. With this plan, you save 25% at $8.33 per month
    The one year plan at $64.99 per year. You save 50% at $5.42 per month by choosing this plan.

Bottom Line

To enjoy RitaVPN’s privacy protection and other numerous features, head to RitaVPN’s official website and sign up for an account by choosing from any of RitaVPN’s plans.

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All you need do is use a preferred payment method to pay for your chosen plan, download and install the RitaVPN app, and start enjoying its amazing features.

Tips to Computer Maintenance to Keep the Device Functioning

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A very few things can make your laptop or computer worse. Things that may take a day can result in frustration of weeks to get things working. This is because the operating systems also take time to recognize changes and there is a need to install the updates. Sometimes, disconnecting is really bad that there may be a need to nuke effectively and begin a clean install as fresh.

The common maintenance issues with the computer may be avoided with the maintenance computer tips. It is vital to keep the computer in top condition. There is a need for regular device maintenance and smooth running of node, so that unauthorized intrusions such as viruses may be kept away. Here are the tips to keep your laptop or computer running optimally:

Tips for Computer maintenance software includes:

  • Check regularly for updates from manufacturers and ensure proper installation. If you leave them ignored, you computer is available for hacks, especially as it is connected online. Set a monthly or weekly schedule to ascertain operating systems are up-to-date.
  • Run reports of network system to identify any data abnormal activity. Automate the system reports so that the backing up process also sends a report daily, telling you a recent file updates.
  • Update IT policies and office as the technologies keep changing and remind the coworkers to follow. Replacing or update of software is best done as a timely manner. Failure to update leaves the PC open to hackers and virus-writers to take advantage. Update the firewall and virus definitions to work with intrusions. Use the online backup tools for recovery and data preservation regularly.

Tips for Computer maintenance for hardware include:

  • Give regular cleaning by dusting the keyboards. Keep the dirt and dust away so that the power unit and the fan do not get stuck. Use a compressed air spray for dust cleaning.
  • Ensure proper hardware is used. Network slowdown may happen over time on using outdated equipment. Always keep your hardware in a dry, secure area to prevent data loss or damage disasters such as breach or flood.
  • Keep adequate free disk space. This is because if the disk space is full, the performance is slow or it may freeze, creating user interruptions. Free up space and move to cloud backup account the archived files. Disconnect unauthorized hardware and ensure necessary firewall protects the administration and enjoy unimpeded access to exposed network.


5 Emerging Tech Trends for Career Improvement

Tech trends are getting bigger and better every day. Technical advancements are integrating more resources as well as applying them in a methodical way. So, every tech domain is incorporating new technological advancements to do things in a simpler manner. In this article, we will discuss certain tech trends that can shape your career in IT.

Most important tech trends of 2018 are here in the following manner:

Artificial Intelligence:

In recent times, AI is coming into the big picture. Nowadays, technical experts are trying to implement AI technologies in most of the IT domains. An advanced neural network is more eligible to resolve real-time issues in a faster way. Furthermore, robotics is ensuring a better future prospect in every stream. Whether you are in health or in core IT, AI is proving beneficial for you.

Data Science:

In today’s world, probably data is the most costly thing that can determine business objectives. Our day-to-day life is full of data and it is also coming from the personal social media usage. Increase in data size is inversely proportional to the storage space. The more you store data, the less you are left with the storage space. Data science is a vast subject, where big data plays the most important role. It helps you to store and manage data in an organized manner. Due to the over increasing business outreach, the analysis of data has become most important in recent times. Different data analytic tools are getting used to derive the most sorted result.

Cloud Computing:

Things are becoming mobile nowadays so that we cannot depend only on the centralized resources. We need to connect with the database from anywhere anytime. Here comes the importance of cloud computing, where everything is accessible from a distributed source and you need only good internet connectivity. That’s why cloud-based ERP solutions like Salesforce, Pega are also getting popular.

Advanced Machine Learning:

Machine learning is a special part of Artificial Intelligence that helps machines to grasp the real-life knowledge. Machine learning focuses on the internal computer programming that can boost the machine efficiency according to the real-life scenarios. Moreover, it is a vast section which considers many types of learning methods such as- supervised, unsupervised, semi-supervised machine learning algorithms as well as it considers reinforcement machine learning algorithm.

Mobile Technology:

Mobile technology has been there since the last decade. Both the iOS and Android are changing with the time. More and more features are getting added year after year in mobile technology. Now we all are in the smartphone era and more improvements are surely going to happen in upcoming days.


Future of UX

TECHNOLOGY AT ITS PEAK
The growth of UX is increasing rapidly as there are improvements in user experience from the time the user is interested in purchasing the product till the user actually purchases that product. Every person associated with the design of the product tries to refine the user experience.

According to Teague designers Clint Rule, Eric Lawrence, Matt McElvogue, “UX design” has become too broad and muddled. In future, they predict that UX design will divide into more specialized fields.

BEHIND THE SCIENCE -SUCCESS OF UX GOES TO DEDICATED ATTITUDE OF DESIGNERS.

For better UX, the designers are always inspired to become better designers and take continuous feedback from users; they increase their design knowledge and continuously work in the improvement of designs.

WELCOME TO THE FUTURE OF DIGITAL ERA
People need to fun-loving and flexible to see the new adventures of UX Designers. The world is rapidly getting connected to technology,we are living in the 21st century where the people are comfortable with Artificial Intelligence(AI), AR, voice and connected devices, the tools and technologies are changing day by day, the UX designers use different way of thought process and different designs;the technology has reformed the lives of people.

FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
The UX design has a great importance in it. In future, User experience design will become a stronger and well-established practice which will influence our lives on different aspects.

With the growth in UX, the demand for UX designers will grow rapidly. The growth of UX designers will be rapidly in all the sectors of the industry because the better the UX Design-the larger number of customers get attracted to it.

PROGRESS AT ITS PEAK

Earlier no one would have thought on booking a cab online and the cab would be at your door within minutes but now this facility is used by a large number of people. Likewise, UX has the power to change the dimensions of future. It will definitely bring new and broad per respective while designing.

Earlier the term UX was only limited to User Experience but with the advancement of technology UX is used to represent the detailed design of the digital products which is not just limited to software applications, but it has also covered website and mobile apps.

Today the people are living in the digital era, where their lives are dependent on the mobile app. The detailed design of digital products is trending nowadays.UX has many components such as Service Design, System Design, Strategic Design, Critical design and Speculative Design as well as Design Thinking.

The invention of Instagram from the website shows how much the industry has revolutionalized. UX designers offer practical and smart solutions, it will definitely break all the limitations push the boundaries of development and bring the current scenario to the situation where the mode of interaction and communication has changed completely; the interface will be designed in the most creative and innovative way.

DESIGNING AS PER USER NEEDS

The design of digital media changes and improves as per the user behavior and the needs of the person with the changing time and trends. The UX will reach out at its peak in future years. Its growth is going to be rapid because it is a never-ending process, improving the design as per the customer requirements, trends and lifestyle.

In future, the UX design will become the most trending and prevalent practices across the world. Many industries have already seen the specialization in the role of UX by keeping in mind Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Virtual Reality and Voice User Interface.

The pace at which our technology is changing, this specialization will bring the new innovation and UX Design will touch different industries and business areas.


Why We Love Technology and You Should, Too

There are so many upsides of technology and we enjoy their benefits every single moment of the day. That is why we love technology, don’t you? This article emphasizes on the fact. Read on to find out.

There are many technologies around us such as cell phones, TABs, iPads and other digital gadgets together with the existence of the web and Wi-Fi signal. All these toys have made our life so much easier to access and/or get in touch.

What would have occurred without their presence? We would have remained in history worrying about our spouses and children coming back home. We would have waited hours and hours for an appointment, never being sure whether the other person will ever turn up. We would have stayed with bulky computers instead of easy-to-carry digital toys.

That is why we cannot imagine a life without technology. Does that make you love technology? Why not? We all do. You should, too.

Don’t you love watching movies from the comfort of your home? Don’t you love working from home as a side income? We bet you do. Don’t you love the heating and cooling systems of your home or any other indoor premises? How about other facilities of modern homes, complexes and organizations? Have you tried for higher education? There is always a lot to learn with modern equipment and methods. Looking at these, you should simply fall in love with technology.

But technology should have limits. It’s your response towards it. You shouldn’t stay glued down to flat or digital screens all day long. Otherwise you will go slump and unhealthy. By all means do exercise and enjoy life in the environment of mother nature. Encourage your family and community to do the same.

On the other hand, enjoy the benefits of modern technology as well. They were invented to make your life easier and comfortable. So why not take advantage of them? For instance, googling and researching on the web have made working on work projects so much simpler and smoother sailing.

But as it goes, a balance needs to be maintained. Do not do too much of either way but in moderate steps and sizes. Then you get to enjoy the real mojo of life for sure. If you have scheduled for both technological and non-technological stuff everyday in appropriate doses, you are sure to have developed good habits and will soon soar to greater success in life.


A Brief Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

We all know that Siri, Google Now, and Cortana are all intelligent digital personal assistants on various platforms (iOS, Android, and Windows Mobile). In short, they help find useful information when you ask for it is using your voice; you can say “Where’s the nearest Indian restaurant?”, “What’s on my schedule today?”, “Remind me to call Mom or Dad at eight o’clock,” and the assistant will respond by finding information, relaying information from your phone, or sending commands to other apps.

AI is important in these apps, as they collect information on your requests and use that information to better recognize your speech and serve you results that are tailored to your preferences. Microsoft says that Cortana “continually learns about its user” and that it will eventually develop the ability to anticipate users’ needs. Virtual personal assistants process a huge amount of data from a variety of sources to learn about users and be more effective in helping them organize and track their information.

Your smartphone, calculator, video games, car, bank & your house all use artificial intelligence daily; sometimes it’s obvious what its’ doing, like when you ask Siri to get you directions to the nearest gas station. Sometimes it’s less obvious, like when you make an abnormal purchase on your credit card and don’t get a fraud alert from your bank. AI is everywhere, and it’s making a huge difference in our lives every day.

So, we can say that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer sciences that emphasizes the development of intelligence machines, thinking and working like humans. For example, speech recognition, problem-solving, learning and planning. Today, Artificial Intelligence is a very popular subject that is widely discussed in the technology and business circles. Many experts and industry analysts argue that AI or machine learning is the future – but if we look around, we are convinced that it’s not the future – it is the present.

Yes, the technology is in its initial phase and more and more companies are investing resources in machine learning, indicating a robust growth in AI products and apps soon. Artificial intelligence or machine intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.

What is the use of AI?

Vision systems. The need to interpret, fully understand and make sense of visual input on the computer, i.e. AI is used to try and interpret and understand an image – industrial, military use, satellite photo interpretation.

What is the purpose of AI?

When AI researchers first began to aim for the goal of artificial intelligence, a main interest was human reasoning… The specific functions that are programmed to a computer may be able to account for many of the requirements that allow it to match human intelligence

What is an ASI artificial intelligence?

A superintelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds.

What is the goal of AI?

Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”. General intelligence is among the field’s long-term goals.

What are the different types of AI?

We need to overcome the boundaries that define the four different types of artificial intelligence, the barriers that separate machines from us – and us from them.

Type I AI: Reactive machines

Type II AI: Limited memory

Type III AI: Theory of mind

Type IV AI: Self-awareness

Is computer vision part of AI?

Artificial intelligence and computer vision share other topics such as pattern recognition and learning techniques. Consequently, computer vision is sometimes seen as a part of the artificial intelligence field or the computer science field in general.

Is machine learning the same as artificial intelligence?

Increasingly, machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are cropping up as solutions for handling data. The two are often used interchangeably, and although there are some parallels, they’re not the same thing.

What are the fields of artificial intelligence?

· List of applications

· Optical character recognition.

· Handwriting recognition.

· Speech recognition.

· Face recognition.

· Artificial creativity.

· Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing.

· Diagnosis (AI)

· Game theory and Strategic planning.

How important is Artificial Intelligence?

AI is the machines which are designed and programmed in such a manner that they and think and act like a human. Artificial Intelligence becomes the important part of our daily life. Our life is changed by AI because this technology is used in a wide area of day to day services.

For most of us, the most obvious results of the improved powers of AI are neat new gadgets and experiences such as smart speakers, or being able to unlock your iPhone with your face. But AI is also poised to reinvent other areas of life. One is health care. Hospitals in India are testing software that checks images of a person’s retina for signs of diabetic retinopathy, a condition frequently diagnosed too late to prevent vision loss. Machine learning is vital to projects in autonomous driving, where it allows a vehicle to make sense of its surroundings. Artificial intelligence is already present in plenty of applications, from search algorithms and tools you use every day to bionic limbs for the disabled.

Sometimes it seems like every other website, app, or productivity tool is citing AI as the secret ingredient in their recipe for success. What’s less common is an explanation of what AI is, why it’s so cool, and how companies are leveraging it to provide better user experiences. If you don’t know much about AI, the absence of an explanation can be confusing. Today, the field of artificial intelligence is more vibrant than ever and some believe that we’re on the threshold of discoveries that could change human society irreversibly, for better or worse.


Virtualization for Fast-Growing IT Requirements

The actual need for virtualization basically requires the prior understanding of three things: Why Virtualize? What is Virtualization? And When to Virtualize?

The virtualization technology evolution dates back to the times of main frame computers, where the operators had to utilise huge power resource to run processes. Operating Virtualization addressed this issue by allowing the hardware resource to run multiple operation system images using a single software tool, thus managing the power utilisation in running processes.

Server virtualization is the key aspect of virtualization technology, where the main server is virtualised to create a guest system that exactly works as a main system. A software layer called hypervisor makes this happen by emulating underlying hardware. Here the guest operating system uses the software emulation of the underlying hardware, i.e., virtualized hardware and not the true hardware.

The performance of the virtual system is not exactly the same as that of the true system. Even then the virtualization holds significance as the most applications and guest systems may not demand for full utilization of the underlying hardware.

Thus, the dependence on hardware is alleviated, allowing greater flexibility and isolation of the processes from the main system, whenever needed. Here is where the companies working on multiple applications on multiple platforms can have an advantage of minimization of extra resource utilization.

Virtualization, which was initially confined to server systems, has evolved over the years to suit for networks, desktops, data and applications, among others.

Wings of Virtualization:

Virtualization has spread its wings across six key areas of significance in the IT industry:

  1. Network Virtualization: This reduced the complexity across networks by grouping the available resources in a network, connecting them with independent channels formed as a result of the splitting of available bandwidths. These channels can be linked to devices later, depending on the requirement.
  2. Storage Virtualization: Here, various storage devices are grouped into a single large virtualized storage unit, which is controlled from a central console.
  3. Server Virtualization: This involves the masking of servers so as to limit the server users from accessing server’s complex information, such as physical address, among others, while also ensuring the resource sharing. The software that is used to virtualize the underlying hardware is ‘hypervisor’
  4. Data Virtualization: Here the broader data access is provided to meet the business requirements, while abstracting the very important basic information like storage location, performance, and format.
  5. Desktop Virtualization: Here the main intention is to share the workstation. Instead of server, the workstation load is shared via virtualization, in the name of remote desktop access. As the workstation works in data centre server environment, security and portability are also ensured.
  6. Application Virtualization: Here the application is abstracted from the operating system, and encapsulated. The encapsulated form of the application is used across platforms without having need fo depend on the operating system every time during implementation.


Harnessing the Power of Technology in Local Government

The global economy is in constant turmoil, governments are challenged to provide levels of service that typically only private businesses can provide and disruptive technologies are transforming industry at a rapid pace. In this bold new era where change is unavoidable it is the innovative who are positioned to surely thrive.

In 2008, the global economy fell into recession; it was the most significant downturn since the Great Depression. Recovery has been a long and exasperating struggle; at times feeling like we are clinging to the edge of a cliff, desperately trying to hold on and weather-the-storm.

Some economists even predict we are on the verge of another global recession. Foreign and domestic factors are both significant contributors to the swelling pessimism; there is the unpredictability of Trump’s Tweets, the looming collapse of the Euro, the astonishingly low cost of crude oil, student loan debts suffocating young adults who are unable to contribute to economic growth and let’s not forget about the dreaded silver tsunami.

It’s fair to say the economic outlook for the United States and Canada is unsettling. As a result of financial uncertainty many government agencies across North America are seeing their budgets tightened, while expectations from constituents continue to rise. The public opinion towards government processes, civic services and budgetary spending has become progressively more volatile in recent years.

So, how does one do more with less? Well, when you consider that we live in a world where virtual reality, 3D printing, quadcopters, pocket-sized spectrometers, and self-driving cars are no longer simply things of science fiction, the answer may be staring us directly in the face.

There are a plethora of software solutions that assist with a wide range of government functions. The technologies available today disrupt the old ways of doing things; these are solutions that automate and streamline processes, compile and share information departmentally, increase citizen engagement and enable open governments.

Numerous communities across North America are seemingly transforming into smart cities overnight; governments are adopting innovative technologies as a means to become more efficient and generate new revenue. Even more uplifting is that these advancements in technology no longer simply cater to federal and state agencies, local governments are now consuming what has become repeatable and affordable technology solutions.

Optimism should not be confused with naivety. The challenges being confronted by governments are most certainly daunting and implementing change successfully warrants its own discussion, but regardless of these hurdles the solutions being developed out of necessity are truly inventive and inspiring. More and more government agencies seem eager to evolve, refusing to fear disruptive technology and instead utilizing it as an opportunity to prosper. Navigating through the complexities of this digital age is certainly no easy task, but in a world ripe for change to the innovative go the spoils.

Derek, an employee of the E-Government Consulting Firm zedIT Solutions, works in collaboration with colleagues and partners to weave through complexities of technology and help transform public sector clients into digitally enabled government agencies.


The Evolution of Computer Memory – From Semiconductors to Proteins

Semiconductor Memory

Conventional computer memory is known as “semiconductor memory” and was invented in 1968. It’s based on technology known as the “semiconductor” which was invented in 1947. Many semiconductors grouped together is called an “integrated circuit”, more commonly known as a “computer chip”. Examples of semiconductor memory include ROM, RAM and flash memory. A big advantage of computer RAM (main memory) is price; ram is inexpensive. The main disadvantage of RAM is volatility; when you turn your computer off, the contents of RAM are lost.

Molecular Memory

Molecular memory is the name of a technology that uses organic molecules to store binary data. The Holy Grail of this technology would be to use one molecule to store one bit. For the near future, it would be more realistic to expect to have systems that use large groups of molecules to represent a single bit. Different types of molecules have been researched, including protein molecules. A more precise name of a molecular memory system that uses protein molecules is Protein Memory. Other types of molecular memory would have more precise names derived from the types of molecules on which the technologies are based.

Protein Memory

In the mid-1990s, the development of a protein-based memory system was the project of Robert Birge – chemistry professor and director of the W.M. Keck Center for Molecular Electronics. He was assisted by Jeff Stuart, a biochemist and one of Birge’s graduate students. The protein molecule in question is called bacteriorhodospin. Purple in color, it exists in the microorganism halobacterium halobium which thrives in salt marshes where temperatures can reach 140F.

The protein undergoes a molecular change when subjected to light making it ideal for representing data. Each molecular change is part of a series of many different states known as the photocycle. There are three main states: the bR state, the O state and the Q state. The O state represents binary 0 and the Q state represents binary 1 while the bR or rest state is neutral. To survive the harsh conditions of a salt marsh, the protein must be incredibly stable, a critical factor if it is to be used for representing data.

While in the bR state, the protein is placed in a transparent vessel called a cuvette, measuring 1 x 1 x 2 inches. The cuvette is then filled with a gel. The protein is fixed in place by the solidification of the gel. 2 arrays of lasers – one red and one green – are used to read and write data while a blue laser is used for erasing.

Reading, Writing and Storage Capacity

We will start in the bR state of the photocycle. A group of molecules is targeted and hit by the green laser array, also known as the Paging lasers. These molecules are now in the O state which represents binary 0. The O state allows for 2 possible actions:

• Reading – done with the red laser array set at low intensity

• Writing a binary 1 – done with the red laser array set at high intensity which moves the molecules to the Q state

The Q state allows for 2 possible actions:

• Reading – done with the red laser array set at low intensity

• Erasing – done with the blue laser which moves the molecules back to the bR state

A bacteriorhodospin storage system is slow. Although molecules change states in microseconds (millionths of a second), it’s slow when compared to semiconductor memory which has an access time measured in nanoseconds. Unfortunately, the time required to actually perform a read or write is even greater, on the order of ten milliseconds (thousandths of a second). The data transfer rate on this type of storage device is also very slow – 10 MBps (MB per second). In theory, the 1 x 1 x 2 inch cuvette could hold 1 TB of data or roughly one trillion bytes. In reality, Birge managed to store 800 MB and was hoping to achieve a capacity of 1.3 GB (billion bytes). The technology proved itself to the point that NASA was exploring methods of improving the technology during space shuttle missions, which in fact resulted in higher storage densities.

Conclusion

Birge’s quest to build a protein-based memory system for a desktop computer was unsuccessful. Although Birge’s vision failed, the development of some form of molecular memory (possibly protein memory) for desktop computers, seems possible. Scientists have also continued to work on developing other ideas involving protein memory. One idea from 2006 was to apply a layer of bR proteins to the surface of DVDs to increase storage capacity, theoretically up to 50 TB (over 50 trillion bytes). A dual layer blu-ray disc has a capacity of 50 GB (over 50 billion bytes).

Prototype Designer

Prototype Design
Prototype Designers are a special breed of CAD designer who has the ability to create complex 3D models with the use of CAD. Most CAD designers go throughout their career as draftsmen to only design things within their specialized field. Some of these would include architecture, mechanical, civil, or electrical just to name a few. Prototype designers on the other hand have to be able to design on the fly no matter what the design consist of. This is a lot easier said than done, and there are only a few CAD designers willing to take on this role for the fact it’s not an easy one to embrace.

CAD Prototypes
If you’re an Inventor and your taking on the patent process you should familiarize yourself with CAD the first opportunity you get. The reason for this is that CAD is used within every aspect of the patent process as well as creating the prototype, manufacturing, and several others. So how does CAD work exactly? Well, CAD 3D models contain information that can be translated by machines within manufacturing, and assist them by creating the instructions they require to build whatever product it may be. They are used with everything from glass, plastic, injection molds, CNC, fiberglass, carbon fiber, and wood just to name a few. Everything you see around you today that has been manufactured is more than likely the spawn of a CAD 3D model.

Rapid Prototype Services

Have you ever heard of the term rapid prototype and asked yourself what exactly is that? Well the word rapid is associated with these prototypes because in most cases it’s created within a day or two at the most. This process is normally done with an ABS plastic or something similar through the use of a 3D Printer. These 3D Printers are the key to producing rapid prototypes, and as technology has gotten better, so has the precision and turnaround time it takes to produce a prototype. So how exactly does it work? It’s done by a special process in which the 3D printer layers the specified material down similar to a normal printer, but the difference is that the 3D printer will do so continuously until the material has formed up and created the desired product. These prototypes are extremely precise and only allow for 4 thousandths of an inch of tolerance, sometimes less. Having a rapid prototype created before investing in an injection mold, or other type of production is just a smart choice. This small step will allow the Inventor to fully review what the designer has done before making any real financial decisions within production.